Understanding Vaccines: How are They Produced?

This year has been a groundbreaking year for so many different aspects of scientific breakthroughs. Many new processes have been developed from creating new vaccines to cosmetic developments such as the microcannulas method which allows fillers to be performed without sharp needles.

For those of you who don’t know most of the complications related to having fillers is due to the sharpness of the needle so this development will make receiving filler much safer. We’re going to discuss vaccines and the latest breakthrough but you can read more about the microcannula technique here if you’re interested in this too. Vaccines have been around for a very long time, the very first vaccine was created hundreds of years ago in 1796 by a man named Edward Jenner.

He developed a vaccine to try and help the fight against cowpox and smallpox which were both common diseases at the time, the first-ever vaccine on record was administered in Berkeley, England by Edward Jenner. Vaccines have come a long way since 1796 and have helped to eliminate many deadly diseases from the human population, scientists are always working on new vaccines for diseases that don’t yet have a cure. Many people have been trying to get a deeper understanding of how vaccines work and how they’re produced after a vaccine was found for the coronavirus in record time, vaccines usually take years to get approval but within a year a vaccine has been improved. We’re going to explain all the basics you need to know about vaccinations.


How do they work?

Vaccines work by triggering a response from your immune system. If you suffer from any illness then your body’s immune system works hard to fight off any attacking bacteria to prevent any serious harm from coming to you.

Once your body has fought off an illness there are memory cells within the immune system which means if the same bacteria attacks again they’ll be able to fight it off much quicker. Vaccines work by injecting a weakened or dead form of bacteria into you, this causes the immune system to respond without you getting sick. Then if your body does get attacked by an alive version of the virus your immune system will already know how to fight off the attackers. This is the basic concept of how a vaccine works and how it leads to immunity.


How are they produced?

Vaccines have to go through rigorous testing before they can be stamped with approval and administered. There are many phases this testing must go through, the journey starts with a pre-clinical phase where scientists determine which antigen should be used to provoke a response from your immune system. This is then tested on animals and if there is an immune response the testing will continue to the next phase which is testing on humans, this happens in three phases.

The first phase usually involves testing on young, healthy, and fit volunteers to see what the optimal dosage is, if it provokes a response in humans as well as animals and if there are any harmful side effects. If it’s deemed safe following this then it moves on to phase 2 which will increase the number of volunteers being tested on and include volunteers from the group that the vaccine is being developed for.

Finally, if it passes phase 2 then phase 3 expands testing from hundreds of volunteers to thousands. Phase 3 also usually has volunteers from more than one country and many areas within a country to check it is safe for all. It usually takes around 10 years for a vaccine to be approved.

RSI: What it is and How to Avoid It

What is RSI? According to Wikipedia, RSI stands for ‘repetitive strain injury’. Wikipedia states the injury in question can occur to any part of the skeletal or nervous system that sees over, or repeated use.

Does this sound pretty benign? Believe me, it’s not. Repetitive strain injury can be extremely painful and can make other tasks in your daily life difficult, or impossible, to complete. While both have similarities, read about how a sprain differs from a strain. A sprain, says Wikipedia, is a torn ligament. A sprain happens all at once, and not over time like a strain. Sprains, while requiring more short-term rest and recovery, once healed tend not to cause any further issues (though can be weaker more likely to sprain than before). Sprains, even the less serious ones, have the potential to have longer-term rest and recovery periods than sprains and often return when aggravated by external stimulus.

How to avoid a Repetitive Strain Injury

A lot of us spend our days attached to technology; whether that be a phone, laptop, gaming console, tablet, or any other device. Technology isn’t designed for long term use and often causes repetitive strain injuries from the amount we use them. To combat this, here are a few things you can do:

Put your phone down

I’m as guilty as anyone when it comes to this, especially with Among Us out. But, with that said, taking regular breaks from holding your phone will really help keep RSI away. Buy a phone stand!

Invest in ergonomic items

Ergonomic items, such as gaming controllers, mouses, and furniture, are specially made to fit the human body. For example, the generic mouses used for laptops and computers aren’t good for your wrist; many people get RSI this way. An ergonomic mouse, however, is designed to mimic your body’s natural positioning, preventing RSI.

So there you have it, look after your body, and buy some ergonomic stuff to stave off RSI.

From Games to Guides: The Best Apps To Download in 2021

After 2020 being the year of lockdowns smartphones have become the main source of entertainment for many people. They’ve become a lifeline for millions of people during the pandemic and with the pandemic not looking like it’s coming to an end anytime soon lockdowns will most likely carry on into 2021. To make 2021 more enjoyable during the lockdowns a good thing to consider is what apps will help you have fun during this lockdown. They’re capable of so much to make your quarantined days better, they have social media apps that will allow you to keep in contact with friends and family, there are graphic design apps, work-related apps such as word, editing apps, games, etc. Finding helpful or enjoyable apps can be difficult so we’ve compiled a list of apps that you might want to download.

Air BnB

Air BnB would be a great app to download for 2021 as after 2020 was a year of not being able to travel. After missing out on a year of traveling and adventures you’ll want to make up for this in 2021. Air BnB allows people to provide their extra rooms/homes as holiday homes for other people. They rent these spaces out and many of them are incredible and at a good price too. By using air BnB to book your next holidays you’ll be able to travel for longer and visit more places for the same price. Even if travel isn’t possible during 2021 then air BnB is still a great app to download to kill time dreaming about the places you want to visit when the pandemic is finally over.

Lilith Games

Farlight 84 is a game produced by Lilith games. It’s a shooter game that is set in an apocalyptic wasteland and is a thrilling combat game. There are various characters that you can play as, if you’re an animal lover in real life then you can play as a veterinarian or if that doesn’t appeal to you there’s a weapons engineer among many other characters. Lilith games also have many other game apps that would be great to download, we rank their game AFK arena as the best app of theirs to download in 2021 because LilithGames just changed the way to redeem AFK Arena giftcodes making it much more effective. Their games are available as apps to download on both the android app store and the apple app store.


Netflix is a movie and tv series streaming service. The app is free to download but requires a monthly subscription to access the content on the app. It’s a highly rated app, it’s cheaper than paying for satellite tv and has many more options of what to watch as every month some shows and movies are taken down and replaced with new content. Another positive to downloading Netflix is if you’re sick of all the adverts you have to watch when watching tv, you can avoid this on Netflix as it’s commercial-free. It also works on almost every platform smartphones, PlayStation, Xbox, etc. Everyone’s favorite Netflix feature that will likely make you make the switch is that the Netflix algorithm learns what shows you like and uses this information to recommend new shows and movies to you so you’ll never struggle to figure out what to watch.


Duolingo is a languages app that offers over 30 different languages for the user to choose from to learn from widely spoken languages like Spanish to less spoken languages like Finnish. This game has grown in popularity over the last year as many people had much more spare time and used it to try and develop a new skill. If you missed the original hype in recent years then 2021 is the time for you to download the app, it’s never too late to learn a new skill. Duolingo makes learning languages fun and simple, you create a profile and set your weekly goals and then the app does the rest for you. The lessons are fun and involve lots of different activities to help you learn about a variety of topics e.g. simple phrases and it helps you to learn to speak, reading, and listening in your chosen language.